Perceiving some specialized terms about CNC machines

CNC machine is a machine that performs different operations such as: cutting, engraving, lathing and woodcarving; swiftly and with high accuracy. But it needs an operator to control, in order to work more efficiently, someone who is well informed about all the specialized terms and knows the machine’s different parts. As this a very important subject, we decided to create a content about it. In this essay we will talk about the specialized terms and different parts of a CNC machine, therefore you will have enough information about the machine, its installation, implementation, activation and the instructions on working with it; when purchasing it.

Introduction of CNC machine parts

CNC machine’s spindle

Spindle plays a very important role in rotational motion of shear parts. The milling and lathing operations in a CNC machine are done by the spindle. When buying a CNC machine, the characteristics of the spindle such as: 1. power,2. speed,3. cooling system and 4. tool holder model; must be considered. Speed in CNC machines exist in different ranges according to the employer’s needs.

 CNC machine axis

Another term which is used when speaking about a CNC machine is CNC machine axis. CNC machines are divided according to the number of their axes. For example, the bestselling rotary wood CNC machines are those with 3 axes. The x, y, z axes create linear and three-dimensional motion on the workpiece. 5 axes CNC machines are used for more complicated cutting and engraving operations.

CNC machine’s table

CNC machine’s table is another part of it. Different dimensions for a CNC machine can be designed by Mobin Tech experts according to the customer needs. For instance, tables with different sizes such as 2500*1300*120 mms and or 1200*188 mms are the most popular custom models.

Workpiece holding system

CNC machines have a workpiece holding system that prevents any movements or slips and helps to raise the accuracy of the operation. One of the most common types of CNC machine tables is the vacuum table model.  This table holds the workpiece by generating a force due to the difference between vacuum and atmospheric pressure.

CNC machine controller

Another term related to CNC machines and one of their parts is controller system. This part controls and manages the operations. Some very common controller systems will be mentioned below:

  • ۱ FANUC
  • ۴ FAGOR
  • ۶ SYNTEC
  • ۷HNC
  • ۸HUST

G-Code programming language

All types of CNC machines’ performances are done based on G-Code programming language. Different graphics related software has been made using this programming language. Graphic software is responsible for the initial design of the workpiece. It means that the very first design is done by the software, then the CNC machine performs the cutting operation in accordance with that design.

CNC machine’s motor

CNC machine’s motor creates the needed power for the spindle and other parts. Generally, there 3 types of motors that can provide the energy a CNC machine needs:

  • Motor stopper
  • Motor servo
  • Motor DC


Counter balance is another part and term related to a CNC machine. This piece is mostly installed in vertical, horizontal and boring center devices. In fact, counter balance, as its names declares, is mostly used to balance and counteract the gravitational pressure of the earth on that axis. Counter balances in CNC machines are designed in two types of chain counter balance and pneumatic counter balance.

Oil chiller

Spindle cooling system is designed to cool down the spindle part and to prevent depreciation of tools against temperature changes.

Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is used to increase the level of efficiency of the machine. This part is installed in the electrical panel.


Tailstock is another term related to CNC machines. This tool is mostly used in lathing machines and rotary machines. It’s used to hold the end of the workpiece to prevent possible vibrations.

Ball screw system

One of the most common motion systems in CNC machines is ball screw system. Using this system, rotational motion is converted to linear motion.

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